The Final Messenger of Allah
Prophet Muhammad (sal) is the final messenger of Allah (sub). He was born in the year 570 C.E. to parents Abdullah and Amina in the city of Makkah
. His father died before he was born and his mother a few years after; and thus, he was raised by his uncle.
At age 40, he was sent a revelation as he sat in the cave Hira in Mount Jabal-al-Nour
from Allah (sub) through one of his angels, Jibreel (alai). Although he had been brought up illiterate and didn't know how to read or write, when the angel said: “iqra” (read), through the grace of Allah (sub), he miraculously did! That was the first word of the Qur'an
to be revealed. The Qur'an
was then sent down in bits and pieces over 23 years, throughout which he preached Islam to his people.
The Last Sermon (Khutbah) of Prophet Muhammad
The Messenger of Allah (sub) passed away at the age of 63, but before he did, he addressed his companions in one final sermon
. He stood in the 'Uranah valley of Mount Arafat
on the 9th day of Dhul Hijjah, in the year 10 A.H. (632 A.C.) and advised his fellow Muslims for the last time.
Over the years, scholars have managed to piece together the words uttered during the last sermon (Khutbah) of Prophet Muhammad (sal). It has been narrated in several Hadith books, Including Sahih-al-Bukhari [Hadiths 1623, 1626, 6361), and Imam-al-Tirmidhi [Hadiths 1628, 2046, 2085]. But it is Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal that has given us the longest and most complete version of the farewell sermon in his Masnud [Hadith 19774].
Here it is:
Prophet Muhammad's last sermon began by uttering God's name and thanking Him. He then said:
“O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether, after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today.
O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest); therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity.
Allah has Judged that there shall be no interest and that all interest due to Abbas Ibn ‘Abd al Muttalib (the Prophet's uncle) shall henceforth be waived.
Beware of Satan for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.
O People, it is true that you have certain rights in regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives, only under Allah's trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them, for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with anyone of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.
O People, listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, say your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to.
All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over a black, nor a black has any superiority over a white- except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim, which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.
Remember one day you will appear before Allah and answer for your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.
O People, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore.
O people, and understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Qu'ran and the Sunnah (Hadith)
, and if you follow these you will never go astray. All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listened to me directly. Be my witness, O Allah, that I have conveyed your message to your people."
The Messages In The Prophet's Last Sermon
Prophet Muhammad's farewell sermon served as a kind of summary of all that he had preached to his people over the years, and that has been revealed to Him through the Qur'an. Here are the major focus points of the last Khutbah:
Equality among all Muslims, regardless of race, gender, or wealth (except in faith and character).
"The most honoured among you in the sight of God is (he who is) the most righteous of you and God has full knowledge and will be acquainted (with all things)." - [Qur'an 49:134]
Kindness and compassion amongst all people.
"Act kindly, just as God treated you kindly." – [Qur'an 28:77]
Being just with money and the way we earn it.
"And do not consume one another's wealth unjustly or send it [in bribery] to the rulers in order that they might aid you to consume a portion of the wealth of the people in sin, while you know [it is unlawful]." - [Qur'an 2:188]
Rights of a husband and that of a wife in a marriage.
“And of His signs is that He created for you from yourselves mates that you may find tranquillity in them; He placed between you affection and mercy. Indeed in that are signs for a people who give thought.” - [Qur'an 30:21]
Following the five pillars of Islam: Shahadah, Salah, Zakat, Sawm, and Hajj.
“Say: He is Allah, the One and Only.” - [Qur'an 112:1]
“Those who believe, and do deeds of righteousness, and establish regular prayers and regular charity, will have their reward with their Lord: on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.” - [Qur'an 2:277]
“You who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you so that you may become righteous.” - [Qur'an 2:183]
"And proclaim that the people shall observe Hajj pilgrimage. They will come to you walking or riding on various exhausted (means of transportation). They will come from the farthest locations." - [Qur'an 22:27-28]
Remembrance in the Day of Judgment.
“Allah – there is no deity except Him. He will surely assemble you for [account on] the Day of Resurrection, about which there is no doubt. And who is more truthful than Allah in the statement." - [Qur'an 4:87]
To stay away from and avoid Satan.
"Verily Satan is an enemy to you so treat him as an enemy. He only invites his followers that they may become companions of the blazing fire." - [Qur'an 35:6]
That He (sal) is the last prophet of Allah (sub), and that with his the religion is complete.
"Muhammad Is not the father of any of you men but he is God's Messenger and the Seal of Prophets. God is aware of everything." – [Qur'an 33:40]
The Final Ayah
It is said that the following Quranic verse was revealed once the Prophet Muhammad (sal)'s last sermon was complete. Many scholars believe that this was the final quote to be sent down and that with this the Holy Qur'an was complete. Others point to another verse in Surah Baqarah as the final quote.
No one knows for sure, but the words in this ayah convey a message that the Islam has been brought to the people completely, and that cannot be unless the entirety of the Qur'an had been sent down.
“…Today I have perfected your religion for you, and I have completed My blessing upon you, and I have approved Islam as your religion. But should anyone be compelled by hunger, without inclining to sin, then Allah is indeed all-forgiving, all-merciful.” - [Qur'an 5:3]